Damage to coral reef ecosystems cannot be separated from human activities both inland and in coastal and marine ecosystems. Human activities on land such as industry, agriculture, households can ultimately have a negative impact not only on river waters but also on coral reef or coastal and marine ecosystems. Most (80%) of pollutants found in the ocean come from human activities on land (land basic activities). For example, poor agricultural and forestry (upland) processing activities not only damage the river ecosystem through flooding and erosion but will also have a negative impact on coastal and marine waters. Given the vastness of human activity that can damage the coral reef ecosystem, it would be better if we do something to improve everything. This has also been done by Papuans, especially Raja Ampat, in the article that you can find at https://www.kompasiana.com/losnito/5a23789859b1300e3b298a62/warga-aborek-raja-ampat-jaga-laut-bebas-sampah.
Through the increasing use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides has been a major problem for coastal and ocean areas. In 1972 the use of nitrogen fertilizer for all agricultural activities in Indonesia was recorded at around 350,000 tonnes, then in 1990, that number increased to 1,500,000 tons. Total use of pesticides (insecticides) in 1975 amounted to 2,000 tons, then in 1984 reached 16,000, – tons. On the coast and oceans, human activities such as coral mining with or without explosives, dredging around coral, fishing with explosive cruise traffic, aquaculture and others have caused major problems for coral reef damage.